van Dyck, Anthony, Christian, Duke of Brunswick, c. 1645
|Artiste:||van Dyck, Anthony (1599 - 1641)|
|Titre:||Christian, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, c. 1645|
|Taille d'image:||9 3/4 in x 7 in (24.8 cm x 17.8 cm)|
|Taille de feuille:||11 3/4 in x 8 3/4 in (29.8 cm x 22.2 cm)|
|Taille encadrée:||approx. 23 in x 20 in (58.4 cm x 50.8 cm)|
|Signé:||Signed in the plate 'Ant. van Dyck pinxit', in the lower left; also signed 'Robertus van Voerst fculpsit' in the lower right.|
|Edition:||A Mauquoy-Hendrickx State II (of II), engraved by Robertus van Voerst (1597-1636) in collaboration with Anthony van Dyck (Antwerp, 1559 - London, 1641).|
|Condition:||This work is in excellent condition with full margins.|
A wonderfully detailed and charismatic portrait, this exquisite work illustrates the technical mastery and artistic vision of Van Dyck. Christian, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg's stately, yet approachable expression reflects Van Dyck's refined ability to comfort and relax his subjects, resulting in a realistic and acute portrait. Christian was not only the Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg but also the Bishop of Halberstadt and then Bishop of Minden. He very much lived for the love of battle and was a German Protestant military leader during the Thirty Year's War. During this war, he gained the reputation being a dangerous fanatic who was cruel and violent in war, especially in regards to fighting against the Catholic Church. His Catholic opponents gave him the nickname "der Tolle (The Mad)," due to these unnecessary cruelties. Interestingly enough, van Dyck's depiction of Christian does not hint at this nickname in the slightest. Christian appears calm and mild mannered, an almost kind expression on his face as he poses outdoors in front of a tree. He dons body armor, hinting at his military prowess, but does not appear as the type of man that one would fear in battle.
This portrait is a Mauquoy-Hendrickx State II (of II) engraved by Robertus van Voerst (1597-1636) in collaboration with Anthony van Dyck (Antwerp, 1559 - London, 1641) as part of his Iconographie series of engraved portraits of famous people at the time. The plate has been marked in the lower left of the plate "Ant. van Dyck pinxit," and in the lower right "Robertus van Voerst fculpsit." Beneath the engraved portrait is the inscription: CHRISTIANO D. G. POSTVLATO EPO. HALBERSTADIENSI, | DVCI BRVNSVICENSI, ET LVNEBVRGENSI ETC.
DOCUMENTED AND ILLUSTRATED IN:
1) Mauquoy-Hendrickx. L'Iconographie d'Antoine Van Dyck: Catalogue Raisonne
I. Bruxelles: Bibliotheque Royale Albert I, 1991. Listed as catalogue no. 186
on pg. 212-13.
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Anthony van Dyck biographie
Sir Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish painter who was one of the most important and prolific portraitists of the 17th century. He is also considered to be one of the most brilliant colorists in the history of art.
Van Dyck was born on March 22, 1599, in Antwerp, son of a rich silk merchant, and his precocious artistic talent was already obvious at age 11, when he was apprenticed to the Flemish historical painter Hendrik van Balen. He was admitted to the Antwerp guild of painters in 1618, before his 19th birthday. He spent the next two years as a member of the workshop of the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens in Antwerp. Van Dyck's work during this period is in the lush, exuberant style of Rubens, and several paintings attributed to Rubens have since been ascribed to van Dyck.
From 1620 to 1627 van Dyck traveled in Italy, where he was in great demand as a portraitist and where he developed his maturing style. He toned down the Flemish robustness of his early work to concentrate on a more dignified, elegant manner. In his portraits of Italian aristocrats—men on prancing horses, ladies in black gowns—he created idealized figures with proud, erect stances, slender figures, and the famous expressive “van Dyck” hands. Influenced by the great Venetian painters Titian, Paolo Veronese, and Giovanni Bellini, he adopted colors of great richness and jewel-like purity. No other painter of the age surpassed van Dyck at portraying the shimmering whites of satin, the smooth blues of silk, or the rich crimsons of velvet. He was the quintessential painter of aristocracy, and was particularly successful in Genoa. There he showed himself capable of creating brilliantly accurate likenesses of his subjects, while he also developed a repertoire of portrait types that served him well in his later work at the court of Charles I of England.
Back in Antwerp from 1627 to 1632, van Dyck worked as a portraitist and a painter of church pictures. In 1632 he settled in London as chief court painter to King Charles I, who knighted him shortly after his arrival. Van Dyck painted most of the English aristocracy of the time, and his style became lighter and more luminous, with thinner paint and more sparkling highlights in gold and silver. At the same time, his portraits occasionally showed a certain hastiness or superficiality as he hurried to satisfy his flood of commissions. In 1635 van Dyck painted his masterpiece, Charles I in Hunting Dress (Louvre, Paris), a standing figure emphasizing the haughty grace of the monarch.
Van Dyck was one of the most influential 17th-century painters. He set a new style for Flemish art and founded the English school of painting; the portraitists Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough of that school were his artistic heirs. He died in London on December 9, 1641.
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